Eye pathologies

Eye pathologies

Some examples of eye pathologies treated at AZ Ophtalmologie

Glaucoma :

Glaucoma is a pathology causing damage to the optic nerve that can lead to a restriction of the visual field if it is not detected quickly.

There are two main forms: open-angle or angle-closure (chronic or acute) glaucoma. Generally painless, it can only be detected with a complete ophthalmological examination including a measurement of intraocular pressure, an examination of the fundus, supplemented or not by an OCT examination and a visual field according to the doctor’s assessment.

OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography) is a painless imaging technique, which aims to examine the different layers of the retina. It makes it possible to observe any anomalies and degradations in the retina, the optic nerve or the cornea. The visual field contributes to determining the performance of each area of ​​vision by stimulating the retinal receptors.

This examination makes it possible to diagnose dysfunctions of the visual pathway as well as certain pathologies such as glaucoma.

Treatment :

The goal is to reduce intraocular pressure, either by instilling eye drops, or by laser or surgical intervention.


A cataract is a clouding of the lens. It is often linked to the natural aging of the lens, but can also follow a trauma, taking certain medications (eg cortisone), general or ocular pathologies, or even be present at birth. The cataract causes a decrease in vision (veil before the eyes, feeling of fog). Glare can also be seen in some cases, with hard night driving.

Ocular biometry is an essential preoperative examination before cataract surgery: it takes measurements of the eye which then make it possible to calculate the power of the intraocular implant, that is to say the artificial lens which will replace the lens during surgery.

Endothelial counting measures the shape and density of the cells lining the inner surface of the cornea, in order to determine the condition of the patient’s cornea before, for example, cataract or Lasik surgery.

The topography of the cornea makes it possible to analyze the thickness and the curvature of the cornea, this transparent membrane on the front part of the eye. It is an essential examination before any refractive surgery because it allows to detect a possible contraindication.

Treatment :

Only surgical, the operation consists of replacing the lens with an intraocular implant.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD):

Age-related macular degeneration is a disease of the central part of the retina, called the macula, which causes significant loss of vision.
There are two types: wet AMD and dry AMD.

Wet AMD evolves rapidly and must be taken care of as soon as possible. It is due to a proliferation of abnormal blood vessels under the retina which can cause visual distortions as well as loss of vision.
Dry AMD is the most common form. It evolves slowly with atrophy of the cells of the retina leading to a progressive loss of vision.

Treatments :

Wet AMD: Early intraocular injections give chance to keep sight.

Dry AMD: There is currently no treatment, but food supplements can affect its development.

Diabetic retinopathy:

Diabetes can affect vision. At the level of the retina, hyperglycaemia can cause a proliferation of abnormal vessels or an alteration of normal vessels, with intraretinal oedemas, which can significantly alter vision in the long term.

Diabetic retinopathy can appear immediately or after many years, hence the importance of regular check-ups as soon as diabetes is diagnosed. An early cataract is often observed as well.

Treatments :

It is essential to stabilize blood sugar and cardiovascular risk factors. Several treatments are possible depending on the evolution of the pathology: laser, intraocular injections or surgery.

Pediatric Ophthalmology:

A screening examination in children is important to ensure adequate visual development.

Some vision abnormalities can go unnoticed and hinder the full acquisition of clear vision in both eyes, resulting in a difference in visual acuity between the two eyes. If this difference is not corrected in time, it may become permanent, persist into adulthood and no longer be correctable (amblyopia).

Children born prematurely to amblyopic parents or having strabismus (visible deviation of the eye) must be carefully monitored and checked at an early age.

During the examination, it is sometimes necessary to dilate the pupils by instilling drops. It will take about thirty minutes for the eye drops to work. The child will be sensitive to light for several hours and must be protected from the sun until the effect wears off with sunglasses or a cap.

Eyelid Pathology:

The eyelids play an important role as they serve to protect the eyes. They can be affected by different pathologies: inflammatory, traumatic, malformation, tumor. Over the years, excess skin tissue in the upper eyelids may appear, or sagging tissue in the lower eyelids.

A decrease in the visual field, vision, or a feeling of heaviness can be felt when this excess tissue predominates on the upper eyelids and masks the pupil (dermatochalasis).

Treatment :

The treatment will have the effect of restoring visual function, improving the proper functioning of the eyelids and their aesthetics. The treatment is surgical.


Blepharitis is an inflammation of the edges of the eyelids. It can be chronic or acute. It is often caused by dysfunction of the Meibomian glands located behind the eyelashes. The Meibomian glands produce the lipid layer of tears, thus preventing excessive evaporation of the tear film. A disorder at this level can also cause redness, dryness, irritation, burning sensation and eyestrain.


Treatments :

Good eyelid hygiene is essential. In case of obstruction, it is necessary to release the plugs at the orifices of the glands. New technologies make it possible to treat blepharitis with a device that is applied to the upper and lower eyelids to massage the glands by producing heat (Find out what it says on the Johnson & Johnson page)

Refractive surgery:

Refractive surgery includes all operations (LASIK, LASEK, PKR, SMILE, phakic implants and clear lens or cataract) allowing you to no longer wear glasses or contact lenses. Laser methods (LASIK, LASEK, PKR, SMILE) can correct weak to medium refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism).


For larger refractive errors, a so-called “phake” implant, placed between the lens and the iris, may be offered to avoid excessively affecting the cornea with the laser or in case of contraindication to the laser. The intervention is reversible since the implant can be removed if necessary.

Finally, the cataract operation can also become “refractive” when it makes it possible to do without glasses with the use of so-called “premium” implants, correcting both myopia or hyperopia, but also astigmatism , even presbyopia.